Καταργέω and the People of the Shining Face (2 Corinthians 3:7-18)
Καταργέω and the People of the Shining Face (2 Corinthians 3:7-18)1
Reality becomes constituted by the ephemera of image, representation, and simulation. Pseudo-intimacy with well-known personalities provides the primary form and style of communication for a population hungry for significance.2
… the antithesis of celebrity, a model of leadership that many Christians in prominent positions have a very difficult time resisting. Celebrity is, in effect, based on an inflated brilliance, accomplishment, or spirituality generated and perpetuated by publicity. It is an artifice and, therefore, a type of fraud.3
Three Introductory Thoughts
We begin our investigation of the passage with three introductory thoughts meant to provide a framework, or orientation, for the study. First, the passage falls nicely into two main sub-movements: 2 Corinthians 3:7-11 and 3:12-18. The first focuses on the theme of “glory,” a motif appropriated from LXX Exodus 34:29-35 with its use of the verb δοξάζω (doxazō). Employing an “argument from lesser to greater,” Paul vies for the greater glory of the new covenant. Constituting a second sub-movement, 2 Corinthians 3:12-187 deals with “Veiled and Unveiled People,”8 the apostle playing off of the veiling of Moses in LXX Exodus 34:29-35 and underscoring the implications of “veiling/unveiling” imagery for ministry. Paul treats “the veil” as a barrier standing between people and the glory of God, pointing out two sets of contrasts, one having to do with the practice of ministry and the other having to do with the effects of ministry. As to the former, at 3:12-13a he contrasts the repeated veiling of Moses with Paul’s “unveiled” ministry. As to the latter, in 3:14-16 the apostle sets those who have spiritually-veiled hearts over against those whose hearts are unveiled by Christ. These two sub-movements combine in a way that the whole of 3:7-18 moves from a focus on the glory on Moses’ face, to the superabundant glory on the faces of all those under the new covenant.
Old Covenant Ministry New Covenant Ministry
7Now if the ministry of death, engraved in letters on stones, was attended by glory—with the result that the children of Israel were not able to continue looking at the face of Moses, because the glory of his face was being made inoperative—8how could the ministry of the Spirit not be attended by glory to a greater degree? 9For if in the ministry characterized by condemnation there was glory, to a much greater degree the ministry characterized by righteousness overflows with glory. 10For really, in this situation, what had been glorified, now has no glory at all because of the glory that outshines it. 11For if that which was being made inoperative was through glory, to a much greater extent the ministry that remains is attended by glory. 12Therefore, since we have this kind of hope, we conduct our ministry with a great deal of openness, 13in contradistinction to Moses. He kept putting a veil over his face with the result that the children of Israel did not look with sustained attention unto the completion of what was being made inoperative. 14Rather, their minds were hardened. For, until this very day, when the old covenant is read, that same veil remains unmoved, because it can only be made inoperative in Christ. 15Indeed, right up to the present time, when Moses is read, a veil drapes their hearts; 16but when a person turns to the Lord, the veil is removed. 17Now “the Lord” is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18All of us, with unveiled faces observing the Lord’s glory as in a mirror, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord who is the Spirit.
The Greater Glory of New Covenant Ministry (3:7-11)
“Glory” in Paul’s Contexts
By New Testament times the predominant Stoic school of philosophy had raised the estimate [of the value of glory] to a very high level, apparently in response to the cult of glory among the Roman nobility … It therefore became a prime and admired objective of public figures to enshrine themselves, by actually defining their own glory, … Self-magnification thus became a feature of Hellenic higher education.15
The triune God who is glorious displays his glory, largely through his creation, image-bearers, providence, and redemptive acts. God’s people respond by glorifying him. God receives glory and, through uniting his people to Christ, shares his glory with them—all to his glory.17
Paul’s Argument from Lesser to Greater
29And as Moyses was descending from the mountain, the two tablets also were in Moyses’ hands. Now as he was descending from the mountain, Moyses did not know that the appearance of the skin of his face was charged with glory (δεδόξασται, dedoxastai) while he was speaking to him. 30And Aaron and all the elders of Israel saw Moyses, and the appearance of the skin of his face was charged with glory (ἦν δεδοξασμένη, ēn dedoxasmenē), and they were afraid to come near to him … 33And when he stopped speaking to them, he placed a covering over his face. 34But whenever Moyses would enter in before the Lord to speak with him, he would remove the covering until coming out. And when he came out, he would tell all the sons of Israel what the Lord commanded him. 35And the sons of Israel saw the face of Moyses that it was charged with glory (δεδόξασται), and Moyses put a covering over his face until he went in to converse with him (Exod 34:29–35; NETS).
καταβαίνοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους Μωυσῆς οὐκ ᾔδει ὅτι δεδόξασται ἡ ὄψις τοῦ χρώματος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ λαλεῖν αὐτὸν αὐτῷ. (Exod 34:29 LXX)
Now as he was descending from the mountain, Moyses did not know that the appearance of the skin of his face was charged with glory while he was speaking to him. (Exod 34:29 NETS)
… καὶ ἦν δεδοξασμένη ἡ ὄψις τοῦ χρώματος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ, (Exod 34:30 LXX)
… and the appearance of the skin of his face was charged with glory, (Exod 34:30 NETS)
καὶ εἶδον οἱ υἱοὶ Ισραηλ τὸ πρόσωπον Μωυσῆ ὅτι δεδόξασται, καὶ περιέθηκεν Μωυσῆς κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὸ πρόσωπον ἑαυτοῦ, ἕως ἂν εἰσέλθῃ συλλαλεῖν αὐτῷ. (Exod 34:35 LXX)
And the sons of Israel saw the face of Moyses that it was charged with glory, and Moyses put a covering over his face until he went in to converse with him. (Exod 34:35 NETS)
Rendering καταργέω in 2 Corinthians 3:7, 11
because of the glory from his face—a fading glory— (2 Cor 3:7 HCSB)because of the glory of his face, fading as it was, (2 Cor 3:7 NAS95)even though the brightness was already fading away. (2 Cor 3:7 NLT-SE)because of its glory, transitory though it was, (2 Cor 3:7 NIV11)
And the sons of Israel saw the face of Moyses that it was charged with glory, and Moyses put a covering over his face until he went in to converse with him (Exod 34:35; NETS).
“The Greater Confidence of the New Covenant Ministry”
in contradistinction to Moses. He kept putting a veil over his face with the result [or for the purpose] that the children of Israel were not able to keep looking unto the completion of what was being made inoperative (τοῦ καταργουμένου).
…by means of some of these stopping short, by the means of others directing to completion (εἰς τὸ τέλος) the actions and impetuous impulses of men (Plut., Soll. an. 1.22).25
The waters flowing down from above stood still, a single solid heap stood apart very, very far off, as far as part of Kariathiarim, and that which came down came down to the sea of Araba, the salt sea, until it completely ceased (ἕως εἰς τὸ τέλος ἐξέλιπεν). And the people stood opposite Iericho (Josh 3:16; NETS).
And how shall it be truly known that I have found favor with you, both I and your people, other than if you go along with us? And we shall be glorified, both I and your people (καὶ ἐνδοξασθήσομαι26 ἐγώ τε καὶ ὁ λαός σου; straightforwardly: “I will be glorified and also your people”), above all the nations that are on the earth.” 17Then the Lord said to Moyses, “Even this word that you have spoken, I will do for you. For you have found favor before me, and I know you above all others (Exod 33:16–17 NETS).
16but when a person turns to the Lord, the veil is removed. 17Now “the Lord” is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18All of us, with unveiled faces observing the Lord’s glory as in a mirror, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord who is the Spirit.
Because God, the one having said, “Light will shine out of darkness!,” has shone in our hearts the light, which is the the personal comprehension of God’s glory in the face of Jesus Christ.
All of us, with unveiled faces observing the Lord’s glory as in a mirror, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord who is the Spirit.
6And the Lord passed by before his face, and he called, “The Lord, the Lord God is compassionate and merciful, patient and very merciful and truthful 7and preserving righteousness and doing mercy for thousands, taking away acts of lawlessness and of injustice and sins (Exod 34:6–7 NETS).
In Scripture, image and glory are interrelated ideas. As the image of God, man was created to reflect, express and participate in the glory of God, in miniature, creaturely form. Retoration to this is effected through the Spirit’s work of sanctification, in which he takes those who have distorted God’s image in the shame of sin, and transforms them into those who bear that image in glory … The mark we were created to reach, but have missed, was glory. We have sinned and failed to attain that destiny. Against this background, the task of the Spirit may be stated simply: to bring us to glory, to create glory within us, and to glorify us together with Christ.28
- This article is adapted from a presentation by the same title at the 2014 national meeting of The Evangelical Theological Society and the fuller commentary treatment of the passage in George H. Guthrie, 2 Corinthians (BECNT; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2015), 203-232. (↩)
- James Davison Hunter, To Change the World: The Irony, Tragedy, and Possibility of Christianity in the Late Modern World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 222-223. (↩)
- Ibid., 260 (emphasis added). (↩)
- See especially Bruce W. Winter, After Paul Left Corinth: The Influence of Secular Ethics and Social Change (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001); idem., Philo and Paul Among the Sophists: Alexandrian and Corinthian Responses to a Julio-Claudian Movement (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002). (↩)
- Richard B. Hays, Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), 132. (↩)
- As David E. Garland and others point out, the suggestion that Paul addresses directly the false teachers here, to a certain degree, rests on speculation, for nowhere in the passage does the apostle make this polemic overt. Paul’s “adequacy” for ministry (3:5) and the “openness” with which he conducts his ministry (3:12) seem to be the primary emphases of this section. Nevertheless, the concerns in our broader context almost certainly mean that Paul at least has the false teachers in mind (e.g., 2:17-3:1). We can agree that the emphasis here seems to be on Paul’s rigorous defense of his conduct of ministry, rather than an outright attack on his opponents, but he is contrasting competing visions of ministry. Thus, we should see Paul’s description of authentic ministry as foregrounded in this passage, with hints of polemic against the false teachers Victor Paul Furnish, II Corinthians: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (The Anchor Bible xx; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1984), 242-243. Garland, 2 Corinthians (NAC; Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1999), 99, wisely notes, “Since this text is not an overtly polemical section which castigates opponents, the best procedure for understanding it is to try to grasp its internal logic within its own context. Interpreting what Paul says against some contrived, hypothetical scenario regarding a prior background for the exegesis of Exodus 34 or the reconstruction of the teaching of imagined opponents will only lead us far afield.” Accordingly, we offer no hypothetical scenario, nor a reconstruction of the opponents’ teaching, but rather suggest that Paul offers a homily on the superiority of new covenant ministry. In the argument from lesser to greater in 3:7-11 Moses’ ministry is not denigrated but built upon. Thus, Paul fights the inferior ministry of the opponents, not by attacking them directly but by giving the Corinthians a clear view of authentic, new covenant ministry, a ministry that is “glorious” in its broad impact on the people of God. (↩)
- This second unit includes more personal language. See Frank J. Matera, II Corinthians: A Commentary (NTL; Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2003), 85. (↩)
- Murray J. Harris, The Second Epistle to the Corinthians: A Commentary on the Greek Text (NIGTC; Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005), 276. (↩)
- Paul Brooks Duff, “Glory in the Ministry of Death: Gentile Condemnation and Letters of Recommendation in 2 Cor 3:6-18,” NovT 46 (2004): 318 notes, “when Paul speaks of ‘glory’ (δόξα) in connection with his own as well as the Mosaic ministry, he refers to the presence of God as mediated through each of these διακονίαι.” Jan Lambrecht has pointed out that 3:7-18 is bracketed by 2:14-3:6, on the one hand, and 4:1-6 on the other, the whole being crafted around conceptual parallels and contrasts regarding various visions of ministry. See R. Bieringer and Jan Lambrecht, Studies on 2 Corinthians (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium 112; Louvain, Belgium: Leuven University Press: Uitgeverij Peeters, 1994), 257-294.
A Christian Ministry: 2:14-3:6a 2:14-17: Ministersb 3:1-3: Corinthian Communitya’ 3:4-6: MinistersB The Two Ministries: 3:7-181. 3:7-11: Old and New Ministriesa 7a-9b a minori ad maius reasoningb 10 statementa’ 11 a minori ad maius reasoning2. 3:12-18:Moses and Paul, Israelites and Christiansa 12-13a (13b) We (Ministers)b 14a-16 (17) They (Israelites)a’ 18 We (Christians)A’ Christian Ministry: 4:1-6a 4:1-2: We (Ministers)b 4:3-4: They (Israelites)c 4:5-6: We (Ministers)Lambrecht has been followed by numerous commentators, often with slight modifications (e.g., Garland, 2 Corinthians, 137-139; Harris, Second Epistle to the Corinthians, 241; Margaret E. Thrall, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians [ICC; Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994], 189-190). For alternatives on this reading of the structure see Furnish, II Corinthians: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, 185-186; Linda L. Belleville, Reflections of Glory: Paul’s Polemical Use of the Moses-Doxa Tradition in 2 Corinthians 3.1-18 (Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement series 52; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991), 177-179. (↩)
- In 4:1-6 Paul concludes his treatment of the dynamics that mark a ministry as authentic (2:14-4:6) by echoing numerous themes from 2:14-3:6. These echoes include references to “ministry” (3:6, 4:1), “the word of God” (2:17, 4:2), a posture “before God” ( 2:17, 4:2), manifestation of the truth (2:14, 4:2), the abuse of God’s word (2:17, 4:2), “commending ourselves” (3:1, 4:2), “people” (ἀνθρώπων, anthrōpōn) before whom ministry is accomplished (3:2, 4:2), those who are being destroyed (2:15, 4:3), speaking or preaching the gospel (2:17, 4:5), “Christ” (2:15, 4:5), “ourselves” (3:1, 4:5), “in our hearts” (3:2, 4:6), and “knowledge” of God (2:14, 4:6). (↩)Scholars have spilled a great deal of ink in treating our passage. For example, see Anthony T. Hanson, “The Midrash in 2 Corinthians 3: A Reconsideration,” JSNT 9 (1980): 2-28; Belleville, Reflections of Glory: Paul’s Polemical Use of the Moses-Doxa Tradition in 2 Corinthians 3.1-18; Carol Kern Stockhausen, Moses’ Veil and the Glory of the New Covenant: the Exegetical Substructure of II Cor. 3,1-4,6 (Analecta Biblica: Investigationes Scientificae in Res Biblicas 116; Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1989); D. Abernathy, “Exegetical Problems in 2 Corinthians 3,” Notes on Translation 14 (2000): 44-56; D. Starnitzke, “Der Dienst des Paulus: Zur Interpretation von Ex 34 in 2 Kor 3,” WD 25 (1999): 193-207; Duff, “Glory in the Ministry of Death: Gentile Condemnation and Letters of Recommendation in 2 Cor 3:6-18”; E. Wong, “The Lord Is the Spirit (2 Cor 3,17a),” ETL 61 (1985): 48-72; Ekkehard W. Stegemann, “Der Neue Bund im Alten: zum Schriftverständnis des Paulus im 2 Kor 3,” TZ 42 (1986): 97-114; H. Kayama, “The Doxa of Moses and Jesus (2 Cor. 3: 7-18 and Luke 9: 28-32),” Bulletin of the Christian Research Institute Meiji Gakuin University 23 (1990): 23-48; Herbert Ulonska, “Die Doxa des Mose: Zum Problem des Alten Testaments in 2 Kor 3:1-16,” EvT 26 (1966): 378-388; I. Nayak, “The Meaning of Katoptrizomenoi in 2 Cor 3, 18,” Euntes Docete 55 (2002): 33-44; Jacques Dupont, “Le chrétien : miroir de la gloire divine d’après 2 Cor 3:18,” RB 56): 293-411; James D G. Dunn, “2 Corinthians 3:17: The Lord is the Spirit.,” JTS 21 (1970): 309-320; Jan Lambrecht, “Transformation in 2 Cor 3:18,” Bib 64 (1983): 243-254; Joseph A. Fitzmyer, “Glory Reflected on the Face of Christ (2 Cor 3:7-4:6) and a Palestinian Jewish Motif,” TS 42): 630-644; Martin Hasitschka, “”Diener eines neuen Bundes” : Skizze zum Selbstverständnis des Paulus in 2 Kor 3,4-4,6,” ZKT 121 (1999): 291-299; R. B. Sloan, “2 Corinthians 2:14—4:6 and ‘New Covenant Hermeneutics’—A Response to Richard Hays,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 5 (1995): 129-154; R. Randrianarimalala, “‘The Lord is the Spirit,’ 2 Cor 3:17a,” Hekima Review 15 (1996): 29-36; S. Grindheim, “The Law Kills but the Gospel Gives Life: The Letter-Spirit Dualism in 2 Corinthians 3.5-18,” JSNT 84 (2001): 97-115; S. J. Hafemann, “The Glory and Veil of Moses in 2 Cor 3:7-14: An Example of Paul’s Contextual Exegesis of the OT – A Proposal,” HBT 14 (1992): 31-49; Scott J. Hafemann, Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel: the Letter/Spirit Contrast and the Argument from Scripture in 2 Corinthians 3 (WUNT 81; Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1995); W. J. Dalton, “Is the Old Covenant Abrogated (2 Cor 3.14)?,” AusBR 35 (1987): 88-94; W. R. Baker, “Did the Glory of Moses’ Face Fade? A Reexamination of katargeo in 2 Corinthians 3:7-18,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 10 (2000): 1-15; Willem Cornelis van Unnik, “With Unveiled Face: an Exegesis of 2 Corinthians 3:12-18.,” Novum Testamentum 6 (1963): 153-169; William J. Dumbrell, “The Newness of the New Covenant: the Logic of the Argument in 2 Corinthians 3,” Reformed Theological Review 61 (2002): 61-84. (↩)
- Note that several times in our translation we render present verbs or participles as reflecting past time (e.g., δύνασθαι and καταργουμένην in 3:7). The reason for this is that Paul uses the present tense at points to reflect an imperfective aspect in what might be called “text time” or the timeframe embodied in the text’s narrative. As a language Greek is aspect prominent, rather than using its “tense” forms primarily to reflect time. At places in our passage, the apostle uses present tense forms while speaking of past events reflected in the narrative of Exod 34. (↩)
- E.g., δόξa is associated with honor at Plut. Rom. Q. 1.13; Mulier. virt. 16; Cor. 4.3. The concept of δόξα is widespread in the writings of Plutarch, who, when Paul wrote 2 Corinthians, was a child growing up in a wealthy family in Chaeronea, a town about 50 miles north of Corinth. (↩)
- See especially James Harrison, who states, “It is a curiosity of Romans scholarship that the Roman context of glory has been overlooked in discussions of Paul’s use of δόξα and its cognates,” noting that the focus normally and understandably has been on the Jewish background of the word. See James R. Harrison, “Paul and the Roman Ideal of Glory in the Epistle to the Romans” in The Letter to the Romans (Udo Schnelle; Leuvena: Peeters, 2009), 329. (↩)
- E. A. Judge, “The Conflict of Educational Aims in New Testament Thought,” Journal of Christian Education 9 (1966): 38-39. (↩)
- Christopher W. Morgan, “Toward a Theology of the Glory of God” in The Glory of God (ed., Christopher W. Morgan and Robert A. Peterson; Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010). (↩)
- Ibid., 159. (↩)
- In the Qumran literature the glory of God on the face of Moses serves as a manifestation of God’s presence, but it also parallels Adam being fashioned in the image of God’s glory (4Q504). The parallel between Adam and Moses may also be seen in rabbinic texts such as Deuteronomy Rabbah 11.3 and Midrash Tadshe 4. See Andrei A. Orlov, Vested with Adam’s Glory: Moses as the Luminous Counterpart of Adam in the Dead Sea Scrolls and in the Macarian Homilies (http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/moses1.html). At points in Second Temple Judaism, the hope was that humanity would be restored to the likeness of God’s glory as reflected in Adam. See Crispin H. T. Fletcher-Louis, All the Glory of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the Dead Sea Scrolls (STDJ 42; Leiden: Brill, 2002), 91-97. (↩)
- Referred to as qal wāḥômer (“the light and the heavy”), a fortiori (“to the greater”), or a minore ad maius (“from the lesser to the greater”). (↩)
- Belleville, Reflections of Glory: Paul’s Polemical Use of the Moses-Doxa Tradition in 2 Corinthians 3.1-18, 204-205; Harris, Second Epistle to the Corinthians, 284; Linda L Belleville, 2 Corinthians (IVP New Testament commentary series ; 8; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996), 99. (↩)
- See especially Duane A. Garrett, “Veiled Hearts: the Translation and Interpretation of 2 Corinthians 3,” JETS 53 (2010): 729-772; and Hafemann, Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel, 301-309. Hafemann notes that of the 1300 occurrences of the verb in a range from the 4th Cent. BC to 4h Cent. AD, “only 16 are found in literature outside the NT and its circle of influence.” See also e.g., Baker, “Did the Glory of Moses’ Face Fade? A Reexamination of katargeo in 2 Corinthians 3:7-18,” 3-15; Hafemann, “The Glory and Veil of Moses in 2 Cor 3:7-14: An Example of Paul’s Contextual Exegesis of the OT – A Proposal,” 37-40; Hays, Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul, 133-135; Scott J. Hafemann, 2 Corinthians (NIV Application Commentary; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 147-148. (↩)
- A great deal of creative scholarly attention has been given to addressing why Moses put on the veil. The straight-forward answer from the narrative (though not stated overtly) is that Moses put on the veil to cover the glory on his face. The point of the passage is not that they were dazzled by the sight (though see Philo, Life of Moses 2.70, who states that the Israelites could not look at the brightness of Moses’ face, which shone like the sun), nor that the veil was put in place because they were afraid (contra Garland, 2 Corinthians, 170), although they were afraid of him initially (34:30). Nor was the veil placed over the face of Moses to protect the people from being consumed by God’s judgment, an interpretation based on the broad context of Exod. 32-34 but not noted in the immediate passage Hafemann, Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel, 278-286. See the article on Moses’ Shining Face by Joshua Philpot, “Exodus 34:29-35 and Moses’ Shining Face,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 23.1 (2013): 1-11, who makes the case that Moses’ shining face functions to show the goodness and grace of God to the Israelites, to remind them of God’s presence, to distinguish Moses in terms of status, and to facilitate a transition from the rebellion narrative found in Exod. 32-34 (p. 11); the purpose of the veil, according to Philpot, was simply to cover Moses’ face (p. 9). As Francis Watson points out, no explanation is given in the OT text concerning why Moses veiled his face. Exodus 34:30-32 seems to suggest that the fear of the Israelites was overcome prior to the veil being put over Moses’ face. Later, in verse 35, Moses veils himself but with no reference to fear on the part of the Israelites. The OT text simply places emphasis on the continued process of Moses veiling and unveiling his face. Watson goes on to suggest that “the veil serves to conceal Moses’ face only at those times when he is not fulfilling his role as mediator of God’s commandments.” See Francis Watson, Paul And The Hermeneutics Of Faith (Edinburgh: T&T Clark Publishers, 2004), 292. The NETS version of the LXX text reads, “And when he came out, he would tell all the sons of Israel what the Lord commanded him. And the sons of Israel saw the face of Moyses that it was charged with glory, and Moyses put a covering over his face until he went in to converse with him” (Exod 34:34b-35). (↩)
- For a fuller discussion see Guthrie, 2 Corinthians, 218. (↩)
- Harris, Second Epistle to the Corinthians, 299. (↩)
- The other two occurrences in the Greco-Roman literature are found in Aristotle (Aristot., Pol. 1301b.20–24; 1331b.35–39), where the meaning is similar. In the first passage, evil is the “outcome” of some forms of government. The latter can be translated as referring to, “the goal and the deeds leading to the accomplishment of the goal.” (↩)
- The term is a cognate with δοξάζω (used at 34:29, 35), and overlaps with it semantically. In 33:16-17 it renders the Hebrew term וּנִילֵפְִנִוְ (wᵉnip̱lênû), a nif. perf. of הלפ, which means “to be treated as distinct or excellent, or to be wonderful.” ἐνδοξάζομαι means “to be honored, held in high esteem, or be glorified.” It may be that the LXX translators, under the influence of δοξάζω at 34:29, 35, rendered the Hebrew to reflect the overarching theme of glorification in the broader context. Wevers suggests that the LXX Exodus translators have taken MT’s וּנילֵפְנִוְ as וּנאלֵפְנִוְ and points out that the Vulgate reads “glorificemur” at this point. See John William Wevers, Notes on the Greek text of Exodus (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990), 550. Interestingly one version of the Targum on the verse also reflects the tradition of glorification. A translation of that Targum on the verse reads, “But by what shall it be known now that I have found grace and mercy before you, I and your people? Is it not when the glory of your Shekhinah leads with us, and signs and wonders are done with us, me and for your people, more than all the people on the face of the earth.” (Exod 33:16 TARG2-E). (↩)
- Michael S. Horton, People and Place: a Covenant Ecclesiology (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008), 307. (↩)
- Sinclair B. Ferguson, The Holy Spirit (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996), 139-140. (↩)